4. Best Management Practices for Farm Biosecurity for Pig Production

4.1 Incoming Pigs, Semen and Embryos

Refers to standards 2.1.12.1.2 and 2.1.3

Incoming pigs should be from few suppliers of known and compatible health status and should be housed isolated from your pigs until you are confident of their compatibility.

4.1.1 Supplier Health Status

4.1.1.1 Purchase from as few suppliers as possible.

4.1.1.2 Determine that the health status of the source of the incoming pigs, semen or embryos for specific known diseases are compatible with those in your herd. You must know your own herd health status in order to avoid disease outbreaks due to the entry of pigs with incompatible disease levels.

Verifying the health status of incoming pigs when purchasing animals is a very important biosecurity measure

4.1.1.3 Contact the source herd's veterinarian to confirm the health status.

4.1.1.4 Obtain documentation of the source herd or stud's health status.

4.1.1.5 Ensure that you are notified if the health status changes.

4.1.1.6 Ensure that the source has an adequate biosecurity procedure.

  • Understand and obtain a copy of the source's transport and biosecurity plan for delivery to your farm.

4.1.2 Boar Studs and Semen

4.1.2.1 Boar stud should require a quarantine as there is an increased risk of spreading disease to many farms.

4.1.2.2 The boar stud should be prepared to share their health monitoring and testing protocol.

  • Boar studs must use a standardized pre-purchase protocol.

4.1.2.3 For semen, have your supplier use barriers and packaging to avoid cross-contamination during delivery.

  • Obtain a copy of and understand the biosecurity measures taken by semen suppliers regarding packaging and delivery to make sure they minimize risk.

4.1.3 Importation of Pigs, Semen or Embryos

4.1.3.1 For importing pigs, semen or embryos – first confirm the above points with the farm veterinarian and confirm that any legal requirements for importation have been met.

4.1.3.2 Limit importation of live animals as much as possible. Check with the CFIA regarding risks involved with importing genetics. Regulations regarding import from the EU are here.

4.1.3.3 Always check international disease alert sites, such as www.healthmap.org or www.promedmail.org, just prior to importing animals.

  • Keep a copy of required importation documents.

Always check global animal health watch sites for regional animal health warnings before considering the final importation step!

4.1.4 Quarantine or Isolation Facilities

4.1.4.1 Locate quarantine/isolation facilities (barn or room) on the site that presents the least risk of contamination.

The use of a quarantine facility is key to avoiding the entry of diseases with new pigs.

4.1.4.2 Use a written animal introduction protocol for all tasks including the entry process, biosecurity, feeding, monitoring and testing.

4.1.4.3 Isolate incoming animals in quarantine units or rooms and observe for clinical signs. Maintain a daily mortality and treatment log.

4.1.4.4 Record in a log all introductions, placements and removal of animals.

4.1.4.5 Clean, disinfect and dry isolation facilities between batches.

4.1.4.6 Ensure that during movement incoming animals do not pass your pigs allowing direct contact.

4.1.4.7 Determine the length of time pigs should remain in the isolation.

4.1.4.8 Include the procedure for entry of workers into the isolation – after other chores.

4.1.4.9 Consult with incoming pig supplier to be sure that there has been no change in health status before mixing the pigs with your own.

4.1.4.10 Use appropriate serological and other tests on isolated animals to determine their status.

4.1.5 Disease Response Plan

4.1.5.1 Develop a disease response plan with your veterinarian in case a disease is suspected.  An example of an emergency planning document would include disease response. The disease response plan should consider under what circumstances the producer would contact their farm veterinarian or the CFIA, as well as implement stricter biosecurity practices.

4.1.5.2 Emergency farm plans should be developed in conjunction with provincial programs. The plans usually include emergency situations such as flooding and fire in addition to disease outbreaks.

  • Have a written disease response plan.

4.1.6 Unidirectional Pig Movement based on health status