2. National Swine Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard

2.2 Indirect Route of Contamination

In this section, indirect route of contamination refers to the transmission of pathogens between infected and non-infected pigs through vectors and fomites.

+ 2.2.1 Incoming Animal Transport

Incoming Animal Transport Prevent introduction of pathogens from incoming transportation.
Rationale

Every time animals are moved into the site, there are associated risks of introduction and spread of pathogens from contaminated vehicles.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.3 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Plan the traffic flow within and between farms/units to minimize the introduction of pathogens.

Sanitation

Put specific sanitation protocols in place for incoming vehicles.

Flow Management

Farm Level and Production system Level: Dedicate trucks to specific flows within a production system and between zones (CAZ-RAZ) on a farm.

Records

Ensure trucks have an inspection program and check their records.

+ 2.2.2 Outgoing Animal Transport

Outgoing Animal Transport Prevent the spread of pathogens during outgoing transportation.
Rationale

Contaminated transport vehicles are a source of pathogens for both the shipping site and the receiving site.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.3 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Apply appropriate down time with trucks/vehicles.

Sanitation

Implement a sanitation wash/disinfect/dry program for all vehicles.

Flow Management

Farm Level and Production system Level: Dedicate trucks to specific flows within one production system or one farm.

Records

Verify for effective wash/disinfect/dry and record it.

+ 2.2.3 Dead Stock

Dead Stock Prevent contamination and spread of pathogens from Dead Stock by handling, storing and disposing of mortalities in accordance with current legislation (provincial and municipal) and good biosecurity practices.
Rationale

Dead Stock represents a source of pathogens for live animals and other farms.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.6 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Implement procedures for handling, temporary/final storage and removal to prevent any contamination of feed and water sources, housing areas and the external environment (e.g., leakproof containers located outside of the production area).

Sanitation

Sanitize equipment used to remove dead stock from the farm or production system.

Flow Management

Farm Level: Handle dead stock appropriately to ensure that any potential pathogens are not spread beyond the group and the barn.

Production system Level: Dedicate dead stock vehicles to specific flows within a production system and use a pick-up schedule that can maintain a production system flow.

Records

Keep a daily mortality log.

+ 2.2.4 People

People Prevent the transmission of pathogens by people moving onto, within and from the farm site.
Rationale

All family members, employees, essential service providers, domestic visitors and international visitors can transport pathogens on boots, clothes and bodies and may be carriers of pathogens.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.4 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Establish a controlled access zone (CAZ) around your building by installing visual indicators at access points of the recognized zones.

Utilize a Danish entrance for your restricted access zone (RAZ).

Only allow those necessary into the RAZ.

Sanitation

Dedicate separate clothing and footwear for use within the RAZ.

Flow Management

Farm Level: Respect forward uni-directional flow by moving from youngest to oldest pigs.

Production system Level: Report changes in health status of the herd to the system veterinarian and modify people-flow to restrict transfer of disease.

Records

Maintain employee and visitor log books including date and place of last pig and other animal contact.

+ 2.2.5 Aerosols

Aerosols Minimize the risk of entry or exit of airborne pathogens.
Rationale

Aerosol transmission of some organisms has been documented. It is an important mode transmission that should be considered in densely farmed areas for some key pathogens like PRRSv. The secure distance between farms varies depending on farm size, pathogen load, pathogenic resistance to desiccation in the air, climatic conditions and local geography.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 5 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Locate new facilities, particularly AI or breeding stock units, in low pig density regions.

Flow Management

Farm Level: Use all-in/all-out flow, as one way to limit impact of area spread of disease.

Records

Verify the distance to your neighbour (e.g., with GPS technology)

+ 2.2.6 Meat Products (for Human Consumption)

Meat Products (for HumanConsumption) Ensure that pigs are not exposed to dry cured and/or fresh (uncooked) meat products.
Rationale

Dry cured and/or fresh (uncooked) meat products pose a risk for the introduction of pathogens because meat may still contain animal pathogens if it not processed adequately. There is a risk of introducing foreign animal disease into Canada in foreign meat products.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.5 of the User Guide.

Segregation

No dry cured and/or fresh (uncooked) meat products may be brought into the RAZ.

Records

Have a verification procedure in place and record compliance.

+ 2.2.7 Pests, Birds and Insects

Pests, Birds and Insects Prevent pathogen spread by effective control of pests (including birds, rodents and insects.
Rationale

Pests can live in close contact with pigs. They are involved in endemic disease transmission in swine. Birds, insects and flies, when looking for feed, also come in close contact with pigs and may release contaminated material, both in their feces (birds) and by mechanical transfer.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.7 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Maintain a secure perimeter around the RAZ.

Sanitation

Remove feed spills and manure accumulation.

Ensure weed/grass control.

Clean up debris.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Understand the risk from rodent/pest transmission to individual sites and units in a production system and take action to prevent it (e.g., maintain buildings and keep entry points secure).

Farm and Production system Level: Design site and multi-site pig flow to minimize the spread of disease in the production system should higher risk farms become infected through rodent/pest transmission.

Records

Put in place a pest, bird and insect control program for facility maintenance, following the recommendations of the Canadian Quality Assurance Program (CQA©) (see www.cqa-aqc.ca/resources-materials-e.php).

+ 2.2.8 Other Non-Swine Domestic Animals

Other Non-Swine  Domestic Animals Keep the pig herd segregated from other Domestic animals.
Rationale

Dogs and cats can spread pig diseases. Other cloven hoofed animals (e.g., cattle) can be carriers of foreign animal diseases. Other types of animals and domestic birds such as poultry can transmit pathogens causing disease.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.7 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Keep non-pig domestic animals out of the barn. Cats and dogs should not be allowed in the RAZ.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Understand the risk from pet transmission to herds in a production system and take measures to prevent it.

Records

Routinely inspect facilities to ensure buildings/barns prevent access of animals and keep records to document that these inspections are conducted and risk is minimized.

+ 2.2.9 Wildlife

Wildlife Prevent contact with wildlife.
Rationale

Feral pigs and wild boars may harbour pathogens affecting domestic pigs. Wildlife (coyotes, etc.) and particularly cloven hoofed animals (artiodactyls) like white-tail deer, mule/blacktailed deer, elk/wapiti, bison, moose and caribou can become infected with foreign diseases (such as FMD).

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.7 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Ensure that facilities, fences and equipment are properly maintained to keep wildlife out.

Sanitation

Maintain barn buildings and surroundings appropriately.

Flow Management

Production system Level: Design multi-site pig flow to minimize the spread of disease should higher risk farms become infected through wildlife transmission.

Records

Keep records of building, fence and equipment maintenance.

+ 2.2.10 Fomites (Tools, Equipment and Supplies)

Fomites (Tools, Equipment and Supplies) Prevent the introduction and spread of pathogens from all incoming materials.
Rationale

Incoming materials, including equipment and supplies, may act as fomites carrying pathogens onto farms.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.8 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Dedicate equipment for use only within a particular barn, farm or system flow.

Sanitation

Include procedures for cleaning and disinfecting fomites in the sanitation program.

Have dedicated equipment in quarantine areas.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Establish sequential use of equipment within a flow or system, working down the production pyramid.

Production system Level: Have a verified cleaning process if sharing equipment outside the production system.

Records

Regularly check and record the use and maintenance of equipment.

+ 2.2.11 Feed and Bedding

Feed and Bedding Limit the risk of contamination by pathogens through feed and bedding manufacture (on-farm or commercially), delivery and storage.
Rationale

Feed and bedding can easily be contaminated directly or indirectly by insects, rodents or wild animals and other species at any stage of production.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.9 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Do not purchase or accept feed or bedding that has been on another swine farm. Purchase from a reliable source.

Sanitation

Feed and bedding areas/storage should be properly maintained.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Follow flow or production pyramid sequencing of feed and/or bedding deliveries.

Production system Level: Keep the system veterinarians aware of changes in health status and adjust delivery schedules to reflect health status.

Records

Confirm feed suppliers have HACCP protocols/records in place.

+ 2.2.12 Water

Water Supply drinkable water and prevent contamination of water systems.
Rationale

The water system (water source, storage, delivery and treatment system) can be a source of pathogens. Prevention and control measures can minimize if not eliminate this risk. Sources of water that are susceptible to pathogen contamination include surface water (e.g., puddles, reservoirs, ponds, lakes and rivers), groundwater aquifers and rainwater collection systems. Surface water systems pose a significantly higher risk for the introduction of infectious organisms and undesirable substances and are not recommended for use without a functioning treatment system.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.10 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Evaluate and manage any water accumulation that pigs could drink in the RAZ.

Sanitation

Use a water treatment system, if needed, and maintain water system in good repair.

Regularly test water if not from a municipal source, following the recommendations of the Canadian Quality Assurance Program (CQA©) (see www.cqa-aqc.ca/resources-materials-e.php).

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Have appropriate drainage in place to prevent contamination by used water.

Production system Level: Understand the risks from water transmission to individual units across the production system and take measures to address problems.

Records

Routinely test and treat water (e.g., by chlorination) and record results.

+ 2.2.13 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Equipment

Pharmaceuticals and Medical Equipment Ensure that vaccines, pharmaceuticals and the equipment to administer them are selected, used, stored and disposed of, as directed.
Rationale

Human error may lead to misuse of commercial live vaccines. Use of non-commercial processes can be a source of pathogens. Improperly stored medical equipment can be a source of contamination.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.8 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Consult a veterinarian prior to use of new vaccines or pharmaceuticals.

Sanitation

Consult a veterinarian prior to use of new vaccines or pharmaceuticals.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Establish a veterinary-client-patient (VCP) relationship. Have the production system veterinarian approve the use of vaccines/pharmaceuticals within the production system.

Records

Maintain records of purchase and vaccination/treatment, as required by CQA© (see www.cqa-aqc.ca/resources-materials-e.php).

+ 2.2.14 Solid and Liquid Manure

Solid and Liquid Manure Collect, store, move and dispose of (spread) manure in ways that minimize the risk of spreading any disease organisms.
Rationale

Manure can be a high risk source of pathogensPathogens in manure can be spread by direct contact, by air, or on people, equipment and vehicles. Plan and control manure management according to municipal and provincial regulations.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.11 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Collect, contain and dispose of manure away from the herd or animal groups and in a manner that prevents access to scavengers and pests.

Sanitation

Implement a sanitation plan that includes staff, equipment and vehicles used to remove manure.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Practice sequential use of manure handling equipment within a flow or production system.

Records

Verify and record cleaning process if sharing equipment outside the production system.

+ 2.2.15 Waste Other than Manure

Waste Other Than Manure Store and dispose of household and farm-related waste in a manner that prevents or controls the risk of contamination by pathogens.
Rationale

If household and farm-related waste is not effectively stored and disposed of it can be a risk to the herd by attracting pests and predators, which can introduce disease either directly or indirectly by moving potentially contaminated garbage around the premises.

Principles

Examples of Best Management Practices:

For more BMP refer to Section 4.12 of the User Guide.

Segregation

Manage storage to prevent access by pests and predators.

Sanitation

Ensure sanitation procedures include daily removal and storage.

Flow Management

Farm and Production system Level: Minimize contact between pigs and waste and manure vehicles.

Records

Verify that waste removal companies have biosecurity procedures and records.